1. Pretlove SJ, Radley S, Toozs-Hobson PM, Thompson PJ, Coomarasamy A, Khan KS. Prevalence of anal incontinence according to age and gender: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006;17(4):407-17.
  2. Ditah I, Devaki P, Luma HN, Ditah C, Njei B, Jaiyeoba C, et al. Prevalence, trends, and risk factors for fecal incontinence in United States adults, 2005-2010. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014;12(4):636-43.e1-2.
  3. Saldana Ruiz N, Kaiser AM. Fecal incontinence – Challenges and solutions. World J Gastroenterol. 2017;23(1):11-24.
  4. Berg MR, Gregussen H, Sahlin Y. Long-term outcome of sphincteroplasty with separate suturing of the internal and the external anal sphincter. Tech Coloproctol. 2019;23(12):1163-72.
  5. Deutekom M, Dobben AC, Terra MP, Engel AF, Stoker J, Bossuyt PM, et al. Clinical presentation of fecal incontinence and anorectal function: what is the relationship? Am J Gastroenterol. 2007;102(2):351-61.
  6. Raza N, Bielefeldt K. Discriminative value of anorectal manometry in clinical practice. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54(11):2503-11.
  7. Gattuso JM, Kamm MA. Adverse effects of drugs used in the management of constipation and diarrhoea. Drug Saf. 1994;10(1):47-65.
  8. Sultan AH, Nugent K. Pathophysiology and nonsurgical treatment of anal incontinence. Bjog. 2004;111 Suppl 1:84-90.
  9. Glasgow SC, Lowry AC. Long-term outcomes of anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence: a systematic review. Dis Colon Rectum. 2012;55(4):482-90.
  10. Barbosa M, Glavind-Kristensen M, Moller Soerensen M, Christensen P. Secondary sphincter repair for anal incontinence following obstetric sphincter injury: functional outcome and quality of life at 18 years of follow-up. Colorectal Dis. 2020;22(1):71-9.
  11. Graf W, Mellgren A, Matzel KE, Hull T, Johansson C, Bernstein M. Efficacy of dextranomer in stabilised hyaluronic acid for treatment of faecal incontinence: a randomised, sham-controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;377(9770):997-1003.
  12. Chan DS, Delicata RJ. Meta-analysis of antegrade continence enema in adults with faecal incontinence and constipation. Br J Surg. 2016;103(4):322-7.
  13. Gjessing H, Backe B, Sahlin Y. Third degree obstetric tears; outcome after primary repair. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1998;77(7):736-40.
  14. Norderval S, Nsubuga D, Bjelke C, Frasunek J, Myklebust I, Vonen B. Anal incontinence after obstetric sphincter tears: incidence in a Norwegian county. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2004;83(10):989-94.


Synergy – Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging